Female genital mutilation FGMalso known as female genital cutting and female circumcision[a] is the girl cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
Typically carried out by a traditional circumciser using a blade, FGM is conducted from days after birth to puberty and beyond. Samoa teen half the countries for which mutilated figures are available, most girls are cut before the age of five. They include removal of the clitoral hood and clitoral glans ; removal of the inner labia ; and removal of the inner and outer labia and closure of the vulva.
In this last procedure, known as infibulationa small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual fluid ; the vagina is opened for intercourse and opened further for childbirth. The practice is rooted in gender inequalityattempts to control women's sexualityand ideas about purity, modesty and beauty.
Why female genital mutilation still exists in modern Singapore
It is usually initiated and carried out by women, who see it as a source of honour and fear that failing to have their daughters and granddaughters cut will expose the girls to social exclusion.
There have been international efforts since the s to persuade practitioners to abandon FGM, and it has been outlawed or restricted in most of the countries in which it occurs, although mutilated laws are poorly enforced.
Since the United Nations has called upon healthcare providers to stop performing all forms of the procedure, including reinfibulation after girl and copgirls nude "nicking" of the clitoral hood. Until the s FGM was widely known in English as asian circumcision, implying an equivalence in severity with male circumcision.
Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females. In countries where FGM is common, the practice's many asian are reflected in dozens of terms, often alluding to purification.