We present a demographic approach to sex ratio evolution that combines adaptive dynamics with nonlinear matrix population models.
We also determine the evolutionary and convergence stability of singular strategies using matrix calculus.
These methods allow the incorporation of any population structure, including multiple sexes and new japani porn, into evolutionary projections. These results differ qualitatively from the widely held conclusions of previous models that neglect demographic structure.
Although the primary sex ratio s 1 proportion of offspring that are born male is nearly equal in many mammals, including humans, sex ratio biases have been observed in countless sex species Karlin and Lessard Explanations for biased sex modela often focus on demographic differences e. Early explanations of sex ratio evolution, for modela, relied on occasionally confused or vague verbal reasoning. Fisher tackled this challenge with a famously succinct, and infamously cryptic, verbal argument based on reproductive value the present value of an individual's future offspring.
If males and females are equally costly to produce, the sex ratio should evolve to equality, as any sex produced in excess will have fewer mating opportunities, less reproductive success, and thus smaller returns on reproductive value; parents who are genetically predisposed to producing the rarer sex thus have more grandchildren to propagate their genes, making the once sex sex more common over time Hamilton ; West If, however, males and females are differentially costly e.
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